Panos were shot using a Nikon D3 and a Nikon 16mm rectilinear fish-eye lens mounted on a 360Precision pano head.

Each pano is comprised of 6 shots around a vertical axis plus zenith and nadir shots. Most setups are captured with existing light, bracketing the exposure 3 to 5 stops on each shot and then hand blending them in Photoshop to maintain highlight and shadow detail.

Radio slaves are used to avoid camera movement between shots when bracketing and to allow the photographer to keep his feet and shadow out of the shot.

Some image dodging is employed during shooting to help reduce lens flare from environmental light sources.

PTGui is used for stitching and Pano2VR for pano output.